With Graffiti, the Mexican artist collective Tercerunquinto (‘a third of a fifth’) delivers a conceptual message at the interface of institution and public space. Awaiting the viewer on the back wall of the Kunsthalle is a completely black surface, whose unassuming initial impression belies a work of remarkable potency.
Contrary to the expectations generated by the title, we see no political slogans or sophisticated pieces of graffiti art. The original white wall shimmers sporadically through the monochrome black surface, and only a few areas that did not receive several coats still contain clues that Graffiti was created by spray-painting.
Tercerunquinto invited young people with no experience of graffiti or artmaking to spray the wall, although not as part of a collaborative project but with the stipulation that each person worked on the wall alone, documented by the artists. Within the parameters set by Tercerunquinto, which included the colour (black) and the form (a blanket covering of the wall, with no signs or symbols), those taking part were free to decide how long they painted for and how much of the wall they covered. Their contributions gradually accumulated into an overall picture, in which individual gesture and authorship are neutralized in a monochrome plane. Tercerunquinto thus radicalizes a theme of art – monochrome painting – that has been a regular topic of the artistic discourse since Suprematism and Constructivism.
Founded as an artist collective in 1996 in Monterrey, Mexico, by Julio Castro Carreón (born 1976), Gabriel Cázares Salas (born 1978) and Rolando Flores Tovar (born 1975), Tercerunquinto pursues collaborative and context-based strategies that engage with specific architectural situations. Interventions in public spaces, and negotiations that investigate the terms and conditions of institutions, are core strands of their work. Not limited, by its very nature as a collective, to singular authorship, Tercerunquinto frequently involves outsiders, and in particular people unconnected with the world of the arts. It is their participation that rounds out and completes the collective’s works. Tercerunquinto lays bare what lies behind physical appearances, in works that depart from symptomatic points at which material and theoretical levels of meaning condense.
Since 1998 Tercerunquinto has treated the wall as motif and material in various contexts: as a sculptural element and in its architectural setting, with a focus on its institutional function, as a surface for signs, as a physical barrier and conceptual nexus. The artists are continually deconstructing and building walls, penetrating them, painting over them and uncovering them layer by layer.
Graffiti is one of the most commonly employed strategies of protest in public spaces. Anonymous, concise, confrontational, clandestine and fast, its slogans are indicators of an attitude hallmarked by dissatisfaction, unease and disillusionment. Tercerunquinto’s Graffiti addresses this same attitude, which seeks public expression in an act of rebellion and thereby challenges the ruling authorities. For young people in a state of latency typical of their age, still innocent in terms of active political participation and hence with no lasting public voice, spray-painting offers a first means of leaving marks on the ‘skin’ of the public space. The collectively produced image on the back wall of the Kunsthalle becomes an expression of the inhibited potential of youth.
The combination of text and image, so closely entwined in the elaborately stylized pieces of graffiti produced since the 1980s, aims at a symbolic occupation of the public space. These “empty signifiers”, as Baudrillard describes graffiti, insert themselves into the urban system of signs. These new signs remain disconcertingly illegible, since their referents are no longer accessible to outsiders. Tercerunquinto’s work combines the confrontational potential of written and pictorial statements in the public space – an illegal form of protest that has been practised since antiquity – with the persuasive power of art that, from its position in similarly public locations, communicates ideological programs in purely visual terms: from Romanesque church portals to the politically ideologically connoted wall paintings of the 20th century, such as Mexican muralismo.
For Tercerunquinto, the black surface, the black ‘picture’, finds its rationale in the understanding of public space as filled with signs. Graffiti is a picture that no longer shows anything. It is what it is, and is at the same time a projection screen full of references within its fundamental painterly parameters of plane and colour. The permeable surface simultaneously conceals and reveals the wall of the Kunsthalle that terminates the building at the back, and which thus marks the outer shell of the institution and the boundary between inside and outside. The picture makes this boundary both visible and porous: it links the wall as an architectural element with the interior that lies behind it and at the same time extends the exhibition space into the public space.
The black surface prompts a close reading of the wall within the surrounding architecture, insofar as it serves not only as a vehicle of information, but also as an element that defines public space. Created with the voluntary participation of young people within the parameters laid down by Tercerunquinto, the mural demonstrates, in exemplary fashion, the theory that public space is only produced and legitimized by the intentions and activities of the people associated with it.
Before spraying the wall, each participant was invited to answer a few questions on the subject of graffiti and protest. These interviews are documented in a video which is on show in the Kunsthalle’s lobby, and which complements the making of the mural. It gives moments of reflection a framework and at the same time shows the young people with a directness that conveys an impression of their latent potential.
Tercerunquinto’s works involve institution, participants and viewers in an open-ended process that pursues the question of how ideas can be brought to fruition in others.
Graffiti takes up from earlier works and continues Tercerunquinto’s exploration of the relationship between architecture and public space, individual and society, institution and artistic practice on the back wall of the Kunsthalle.
The exhibition is generously supported by
HEIVISCH and artEDU Stiftung
Tercerunquinto is an art collective formed in 1996, by are Julio Castro Carreón (Monterrey, Mexico, 1976), Gabriel Cázares Salas (Monterrey, Mexico, 1978) and Rolando Flores Tovar (Monterrey, Mexico, 1975). In 1999 they graduated at the School of Visual Arts of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL). They live and work in Mexico City.
Solo exhibition (selection): Old Construction Units, An Economic Contract, Plus Another One Possible, Proyectos Monclova, Mexico City, Mexico (2012); Real Estate: Properties and Other Holdings, Museum of Contemporary Art, Denver, USA (2012); Presentación: Trozo de escombro colocado para mantener la puerta abierta de un edificio, Ranchito, Matadero, Madrid, Spain (2012); Otros fueros, Espai d’art contemporani de Castelló, Castellón de la Plana, Spain (2011); Restauración de una pintura mural, Sala de Arte Público Siqueiros, Mexico City, Mexico (2011); Prólogo, Galerie Peter Kilchmann, Zurich, Switzerland (2010); Proyecto de Economía de Solidaridad, Proyectos Monclova, Mexico City, Mexico (2009); Investiduras institucionales, Museo de Arte Alvar y Carmen T. de Carrillo Gil, Mexico City, Mexico (2008); I Am What I Am, Ikon Eastside, Birmingham, UK (2008); In Residence, New Langton Arts, San Francisco, USA (2007); Investiduras institucionales, Centro de las Artes de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico (2007); Project of Public Sculpture in the Urban Periphery of Monterrey, CCA Wattis Bulletin Board Project, Institute for Contem porary Arts, Los Angeles, USA (2006).
Group exhibitions (selection): Olinka or Where Movement is Created, Museo Tamayo, Mexico City, Mexico (2012); Track, SMAK Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Gent, Belgium (2012); Level 2 Gallery: No Lone Zone, Tate Modern, London, UK (2012); Resisting the Present. Mexico 2000–2012, Museo Amparo, Puebla, Mexico (2011) and Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, France; Espectrografías: Memorias e Historia, Museo Universitario de Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, Mexico (2010); Beyond Borders, Mexican Public Art, Skissernas Museum, Lund, Sweden (2010); Ce Qui Vient, Biennale d’Art contemporain, Rennes, France (2010); In Lieu of Unity/En lugar de la unidad, Ballroom, Marfa, Texas, USA (2010); Shenzhen & Hong Kong Architecture Biennale, Shenzhen, China (2009); Registro 02. Mirar por segunda vez, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico (2009); Draft Establishment Future (DEF), Akademie der Künste, Berlin, Germany (2009); PLOT09: This World & Nearer Ones, Governors Island, New York, USA (2009); Sueño de casa propia, Casa del Lago, Mexico City, Mexico (2008); Las implicaciones de la imagen, Museo Universitario de Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City, Mexico (2008); Vacíos Urbanos, Museo de la Ciudad de México, Mexico City, Mexico (2007); Só é possível se formos 2., Centro de Artes de Sines, Sines, Portugal (2007); Los Nuevos Leones, Centro de las Artes de Nuevo León III, Monterrey, Mexico (2007); Please Excuse our Appearance, Ikon Eastside, Birmingham, UK (2007); Habitat/ Variations, Centre d’Art Contemporain, Geneva, Switzerland (2007); Dedicated to you, but you weren’t listening, The Power Plant, Toronto, Canada (2005).